Norbert Boruett-Innovating in Medical Education

Drugs and substance abuse

Search for a video depicting the effects of drugs and substance abuse- Not more than 10 Minutes. Summaries the video using not more than 100 words. Next embed another video showing the one approach for managing drug and substance abuse. Summaries in about 100 words. You may use y tube or vimeo.

35 replies to “Drugs and substance abuse

  1. effects of drugs and substance abuse include;
    – drugs and substance abuse can cause brain damage; they disrupt the functioning of the brain reward system responsible for shaping human behaviour,
    -they cause withdrawal syndromes, lung cancer, liver cancer, CVDs, and mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, paranoia, etc.
    -they cause emotional instability,
    -they can lead to premature birth, birth defect, or low birth weight;
    -they can lead to poor judgement, wrong decision making, memory and attention problem
    -they weaken the immune system, increasing the risk of illnesses and infections such as HIV/AIDS


    1. SHS/DCH/530-3/2018
      1.Its against the law
      2.risk taking behaviours
      3.leads to unprotected sex
      4.affect natural maturation of the brain


    2. Effects of drug and substance abuse (Assignment) 29/11/2019

      Prescription drugs or not, drug abuse cause changes to the human body. Could cause temporary or long term consequences.
      • Weight gain – In a short time, leads to serious health effects in the future
      • Psychosis – If taken for non-treatment, schizophrenia
      • Acne/skin sores and tooth decay – Poor personal care, oral hygiene
      • Coma – Damage to kidneys, bones and brain
      • Liver cancer due to alcohol abuse
      • Dilated pupils – Blurring vision
      • HIV/AIDs – Shared equipment, unprotected sex
      • Impotence – Premature or delayed ejaculation
      • High blood pressure – Elevated heart rate
      • Disfiguration – Physical appearance
      DON’T DO DRUGS’ SHS/BCH/189 – 2/2018
      Recovery options: Treatment of drug addiction and alcoholism

      Addiction develops in biological, psychological and sociological reasons. Harm caused is specific, and successful treatment incorporates multiple components.
      • Abstinence – Medically supervised detoxification relieves life threatening physical effects and withdrawals e.g. Methadone,
      • Mental health therapy – Modifies attitudes and behaviour related addictions.
      Approaches are; Cognitive behaviour, motivational interviewing, family counselling, and working with recovery coach.
      • Peer support – Source of guidance, assistance and encouragement to victims/family
      • Twelve step programme – like in alcoholics
      Smart recovery moderation management and secular organizations for sobriety are online. This allows anonymity. Support structure is most important.


  2. SHS/BCH/432-3/2018
    From the video 1; The ripple effects of addiction by Brennan Harlow TEDx Talks
    Addiction according to Brennan affected his family in the following ways:
    1. Ripping off of families due to addiction. This is where children have to be separated from their parents who are addicts and put into foster care.
    2. Death due to addiction related diseases, leaving families emotionally affected.
    3. Children are abused by parents as observed by Brennan where his cousins are covered with cigarette burns. Parents no longer love their children and mistreat and mishandle them.
    4. Overwhelming other family members to take care of their children and addicted relative’s children causing a rip in families, constant fights, lack of comfort and break of relationships.

    From video 2; Three approaches of treating addiction by Dr. Bob Weathers
    Referring to Cynthia Osborn’s work, he describes the approaches as psychotherapeutic treatments to addiction. They include;
    1. Cognitive behavior approach.
    Here therapists are recommended to abstain from any sort of addiction they might have, for example drink coffee. This allows them to experience what the addict/client would be going through during the therapy and treatment. It allows for empathy acquisition and enables the therapist to fully understand their client and know how to go about the entire procedure.
    2. Community reinforcement approach.
    Involves acting on the biological, medical, psychological and socioeconomic status of the community and the individual. Home or community reinforces management approach in addiction cessation where they come together to support the addict through their therapy. This shows love and acceptance to the addict, improves on the addicts ability to communicate with family and the community. For example, life partners of the addicts give altimatums, “no talking when they are abusing drugs.”
    This helps sustain recovery and achieve long-term recovery.
    3. Solution focused approach
    Cynthia Osborn suggested the use of language of hope.
    This is where by words such as ‘alcoholics’ and ‘addicts’ is avoided as they aggravate client’s reluctance to counseling.
    She cites that these terms would be detrimental to the client thus the language of hope uses non shaming problem to possible later acceptance to treatment.
    This then empowers and allows treatment to resistant addicted individuals.


  3. Effects of drug and substance abuse
    -increased strain on liver puts a person at risk of liver damage or failure
    -Drugs causes seizures,stroke,mental disorders like depression and anxiety
    -Drugs weakens the immune system increasing risks of illnesses and infections like HIV/AIDS
    -Drugs causes brain damage thus disrupting the functioning of the brain reward system
    -Drugs causes problems with memory attention and decision making which make daily lives difficult
    -Drugs contain impurities harmful to unborn leading to premature births,low birth weight and poor IQ
    -Leads to accidents and injuries and other punishable offence
    -Poor appetite and weight loss due to nausea and abdominal pains


  4. Behavioral approach in management of drug and substance abuse
    -Treatment incorporates multiple components targeting particular aspects of illnesses
    -Abstinence involves medically supervised detoxification to relieve life threatening physical effects with drug
    -Medication assisted therapy helps in modifying attitudes and behaviors related to addiction.
    – Help families to improve communication and overall interaction and increase life skills to handle stress
    -Cognitive behavioral therapy helps anticipate problems and help in effective copying strategies
    -Drug users will monitor their feelings thoughts and recognize distorted thinking patterns and cues that may trigger intended craving for substance abuse
    -This identities and anticipate high risk situations and help apply a ray of self control skills example anger management, problem solving and substance refusal


    i. High risk of contracting certain diseases such as throat cancer, kidney diseases and lung cancer and other diseases.
    ii. Engage in high-risk behavior such as having unprotected sex and also careless driving.
    iii. Drug addiction leads to mental disorders such as depression and social anxiety.
    iv. It leads to lose of jobs and leads to break up of families.
    v. Some drug addicts involve themselves in crimes such as stealing money from people so as to go and get drugs
    vi. It causes withdrawal symptoms.

    i. Solution focused approach – this is where the counselor assesses the readiness of the drug addict to change. The person undergoes the stages of change model that starts from pre-contemplation to action.
    ii. Community reinforcement approach – this is an approach that is used to get the family and community members to support the patient. This helps a lot during the rehabilitation for it involves cooperation of everyone.
    iii. Cognitive behavioral therapy – it is an approach that is used to change unhelpful cognitive distortions and behaviors improving emotional regulation and development of personal coping strategies that target solving the problem.


    Drug and substance abuse is the use of harmful psychoactive substances e.g. prescribed drugs alcohol, cocaine, marijuana. They usually have mental and physical effects on a person.
    Adolescents and young adults are the most widely affected. Effects include:
    1. Lack of motivation that leads in challenges in performing their day to day activities
    2. Long term effects on the developing brain
    3. Poor performance in school since their concentration level goes down
    4. Social problems that lead to inability to communicate with their family and friends and also inappropriate coping skills
    5. Involvement in accidents and injuries
    6. Indulging in unprotected sex
    7. Emotional and physical problems


    In cognitive behavioral therapy environmental factors influence our thoughts, emotions and behavior. This type of approach enables us control our negative thoughts that may lead to substance abuse, it also helps identify triggers and how to respond to them.
    This therapy helps make someone aware of what they are thinking, improve life coping skills, encourage healthy behavior and attitude towards drug and substance abuse and also adhere to medication
    Therefore, this type of treatment changes how we think, feel and behave and make someone be fruitful in the society.


  7. Harmful effects and consequences of drug abuse
    -A moment of pleasure
    -A lifetime of pain
    -Drugs fry your brain,causes impairment,poor judgement,poor decision making and coordination
    -drugs not only destroys your life but also that of family, friends and loved ones
    -you lose your job, livelihood and your future
    -you are horrific and shocking, alone you loose yourself,no control,no respect,loss of family and friends,you are full of lies, your life turns upside down
    -leads to addiction,withdrawal symptoms and drug dependence
    –leads to mental disorders like depression, anxiety and confusion
    -drove to the edge pain, trauma,kills identity, suicide, life imprisonment,cut from social life and leads to death
    -you cannot blame anyone else you are the one to blame

    Goal- to add support and behavioral recovery to adults struggling with breathing
    – to deal with addiction and recovery
    -Behavioral approach-help users to actively participate in their recovery and from drug abuse and addiction and enhance their ability to resist drug use
    -behavioral and cognitive counselling-helps in working in recovery
    cognitive-helps to anticipate problems and helps develop effective copying strategies,they will learn to monitor their feelings and thoughts and recognize distorted thinking patterns and cues that trigger the substance abuse
    -therapy assist the families in improving their communication and overall interactions and increase life skills to handle stressful circumstances and deal with environmental cues that may trigger intense craving for drugs
    -it anticipates high risk situations and apply a ray of self control skills e.g anger management,problem solving and substance refusal


  8. SHS/BCH/190-2/2018
    Drug and substance abuse refers to the use of substances in a manner, not of health benefit to the body that may result in a harmful psychoactive effect such as:
    1. Poor brain development and maturation
    2. Damage of body organs such as the liver.
    3. Impaired judgments, decision making and memory of the drug user.
    4. Risk of engaging in high-risk behaviours such as unprotected sex, accident involvement, violence and fights.
    5. Lack of motivation leading to low potential exploitation.
    6. Lack of proper social skills hence poor communication with family and friends

    • Integrative treatment which includes individual, family and community involvement to facilitate treatment. A multi-dimensional approach where all stakeholders are associated through counselling on how to support the addicted individual to lead a drug-free life is used.
    • Recommendation of voluntary abstinence from drug use by the user through an individual agreement of an abstinence contract, where they own up to the problem they are into and show an urge to change the behaviour.


  9. SHS/DCH/546-3/2018
    Drug and substance abuse is the hazardous use of psychoactive substances like marijuana, tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs
    1. Lack of motivation programs that promotes reduced potential influence of drug abuse and helping them to create a sober peer network.
    2. Brain damage which affects the maturity of the brain, as it is known that the brain continues to develop up to age 25.
    3. Lead to relationship and family problems.
    4. Problems in schools and lack of performance.
    5. Lead to unprotected sex.
    6. Involvement in injuries and accidents.
    7.Lead to mental disorders like anxiety and depression.
    8. It can also lead to job loss due to unproductiveness.

    1. Community reinforcing approach through assessing of drug abuse by measuring the level of substance abuse in the community and examining the level of community risk factors.
    2. voluntarily abstain from something important to themselves; supporting them to be involved in meaningful structural activities and encouraging total abstinence from drugs and substance abuse
    3. relapse process by developing a positive supportive network, staying in therapy and take medication as needed


  10. SHS/DCH/719-3/2018
    Drug Addiction; Is a chronic disease people cant just stop using for a few day, Addiction is complex but treatable disease that affects the brain function and also the behavior of the person.
    Drug Abuse and Substances: is a pattern use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others like; Alcohol ,Cocaine, marijuana. Effects of drug addiction;
    1. Brain damage; the brain continues to develop up to age of 25 thus due to engaging themselves in drug addiction affects maturation of the brain with toxic substances and lead to brain damage
    2. It is against the law, that whatever they are ding it is against the policies kept by the government
    3. Practicing unprotected sex
    4. Can cause family and relationship crisis
    5. Engaging in high risk behavior’s
    6. Accidents due to drink and drive
    7. Lack of motivation leading to no-stop using drugs, no stay free from drugs and non abstinence from drugs
    8. Lack of involvement in school and poor performance
    Treatment: covers behavioral counselling or therapies, medication devices and application used to treat with draw symptoms or deliver skill training, evaluation and treatment for co- occurring mental health issues such as depression and anxiety and long term follow up the treatment
    Recommended: Community Reinforcement Approach, achieving abstinence by elimination positive reinforcement for drug abuse and enhancing positive reinforcement for sobriety, building clients motivation to quit drug use and involving significant others in the recovery process
    Recommended: Voluntary abstained from something important to themselves, establishing mentor programs for youth, establishing peer groups program and supporting them to be involved in meaningful activities
    Solution: Language of hope, stop using words like; Alcoholics or addicts which brings shame to the patient, hope should bring courage and non shame to the client
    Solution: Also empowering individuals to take responsibilities to their health.


  11. SHS/BCH/496-3/2018
    The dangerous effects of drug and substance abuse on the body are: –
     Weight gain/loss: drug addicts depending on the kind of substance they are taking experience a sudden change in weight in a short amount of time.
     Psychosis: this is a mental health problem that causes people to perceive or interpret things differently from those around them. Psychosis is often characterized by hallucinations. E.g. Amphetamine can cause psychosis if taken for non-treatment purposes.
     It leads to health problems like hypertension, tuberculosis, heart problems, gastrointestinal conditions, hepatitis, Liver cancer, HIV/AIDS and even coma. It also leads to acne, skin sores, tooth decay and disfiguration of physical appearances.
     Impotence: it leads to premature ejaculation, poor response to sexual contact and erectile dysfunction in male.

    Approach for managing drug and substance abuse
    Successful management and treatment of addiction incorporates multiple components targeting particular aspects of the illness and its consequences. The first step is abstinence, followed by medically supervised detoxification and medication assisted therapies.
    The approaches used include;
    Mental health therapy: it helps in the modification of attitudes and behaviors related to addiction.
    Cognitive behavioral therapy.
    Motivational interviewing.
    Family counselling.
    Recovery coach.
    Use of 12 step programs.


  12. SHS/BCH/497-3/2018
    Substance use disorders can lead to multiple behavioral problems, both in the short- and long-term, which can include:
    3. You are more likely to have an accident (at home, in a car, or wherever you are).
    4. You may be vulnerable to sexual assault or you may engage in unprotected sex. Either of these could lead to pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection.
    5. You could commit a sexual assault or other violent acts.
    6. You may find it hard to sleep, think, reason, remember and solve problems.
    Drug use can also result in long-term health outcomes that include:
    1.harm to organs and systems in your body, such as your throat, stomach, lungs, liver, pancreas, heart, brain, nervous system.
    2.cancer (such as lung cancer from inhaling drugs).
    3.infectious disease, from shared injecting equipment and increased incidence of risk-taking behaviors.
    4. A weakened immune system, increasing the risk of illness and infection.
    5.Seizures, stroke, mental confusion, and brain damage.

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy a combination of two therapeutic approaches, cognitive therapy, and behavioral therapy.
    it helps people address problematic thoughts and feelings to overcome addiction.
    Cognitive-behavioral therapists help recovering addicts identify their negative thoughts. Often, people try to self-medicate these painful thoughts and feelings by drinking or abusing drugs.
    this therapy helps a person succeed within the treatment and build a solid foundation for recovery.
    solution focused theory approach The goal of solution-focused therapy is to help people imagine the future they want to create and then create a series of realistic steps to help them get there.
    it focuses on finding solutions to problems rather than focusing on the problems themselves.


  13. SHS/DCH/429-3/2018

    Drug and substance abuse is the use of harmful psychoactive substances
    -drugs and substance abuse can cause brain damage ,
    -they cause withdrawal syndromes, lung cancer, liver cancer
    -they cause emotional instability,
    -they can lead to premature birth, birth defect, or low birth weight;


    -Treatment and preventing relapse
    -encourage Abstinence
    -Medication assisted therapy helps in modifying attitudes and behaviors related to addiction.
    – families to encourage on good health
    -monitoring of adolescents behavior


    (From a you tube video of Sandeepa Kaur, a clinical psychologist)- Effects of drug and substance abuse;
    Drug and substance abuse disorders are typically long- lasting, persistent and very challenging to treat and have tendency to relapse after remission.
    Drug and substance abuse is generally initiated in adolescence or early adulthood and is commonly associated with a variety of problems. (De Micheli and Formigoni, 2000).
    Effects of drug and substance abuse can be categorized into;
    • Physical.
    • Psychological.
    • Familial.
    • Financial.
    • Social.
    • Academic.
    • Legal.
    Physical effects include;
     Cardiovascular problems- Vascular inflammation and collapsed veins, bacterial infections in the blood vessels and heart valves, endocarditis (infection of the inner lining of the heart chambers and valves).
     Respiratory problems- chronic bronchitis, emphysema, injury to the upper airway (from sniffing drugs), collapsed lung (from inhaling drugs), community-acquired pneumonia (10x higher risk than the general population), fatal asthma attacks, pulmonary edema, pulmonary vascular disease, septic embolism (an infectious embolism that travels into the lungs), lung inflammation, infection, or abscess resulting from injecting foreign particulates found in many prescription and illicit drugs.
     HIV/AIDS.
     Disease contraction, such as hepatitis B and C.
     Several types of cancer.
     GIT effects characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and constipation.
     Liver diseases- Alcoholic steatosis (fatty liver), alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, fulminant hepatic necrosis or acute liver failure.
     Death.
    Psychological effects include;
     Psychosis- A mental disorder characterized by symptoms, such as delusions or hallucinations, that indicate impaired contact with reality.
     Depression.
     Anxiety.
     Memory loss.
     Lack of focus.
     Agitation.
     Insomnia.
     Cognitive impairment.
     Drug/substance dependency.
     Other forms of mental illness.
    *In a study of 22 dual diagnosed patients with schizophrenia, (a severe mental disorder characterized by some, but not necessarily all, of the following features: emotional blunting, intellectual deterioration, social isolation, disorganized speech and behavior, delusions, and hallucinations).
    Drug and substance abuse preceded the onset of schizophrenia in the majority. (Goswami, Singh, Mattoo and Basu, 2003).
    Familial, financial, academic, legal and social effects include;
     Money Problems: One of the most stressful issues a family can experience is financial insecurity. Addicts and alcoholics have been known to steal from their family, in order to maintain their drug and alcohol use. Paying for hospital bills, detox centers, and treatment can be expensive, even with insurance helping.
     Emotional Stress: Dealing with addiction is NOT easy. The process can be a long and difficult one. Not knowing what’s going on beneath your roof, not knowing what to expect from a loved one, not knowing what each day will bring – these are all incredibly stressful things. Therapy is recommended.
     Violence: While under the influence, addicts and alcoholics may act out violently. This violence affects the family emotionally and physically. It can also affect the family financially, if the law’s involved.
     Separation: All the stress of emotional, financial, personal, or legal issues can take its toll on familial relationships. This can be too much for many couples to overcome and may lead to separation or divorce. Things may not get this dire, but the family may feel ashamed and isolate from their community and friends.
     Neglect of Other Members: When one family member has a problem, other members may be neglected. This can lead to feelings of jealousy, resentment, and anger. Focusing on the illness of one individual can hurt the rest of the family.
     Health Issues: The lifestyle of active addiction takes a huge toll on the mind and body. The effects of drug and alcohol abuse create a ton of short and long term issues. Family members have to deal with the emotional pain of finding their loved ones unconscious, taking them to hospitals, or things like that. They may also have to deal with their loved ones having serious medical issues, including: liver failure, accidental harm to self or others, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, driving under the influence, etc.
     Legal Issues: Legal issues are common among alcoholics and addicts. Dealing with things like DUI’s, and possession charges, can hurt families financially. Dealing with a family member being arrested and jailed costs money. Not to mention the incredible inconvenience and emotional strain.

    Approaches for managing drug and substance abuse;
    Clinical studies have resulted in improvements in the outcomes of addiction treatment. The different approaches to substance abuse treatment create innovative and modernized programs that provide help getting sober.
    Several different types of evidence-based approaches to treatment are available. They range from behavioral therapies, pharmacotherapies, and behavioral therapies which are primarily for adolescents.
    Examples of evidenced-based approaches to recovery:
    Behavioral Therapies:
    Behavioral therapies give the individual incentive to stay clean. Individuals learn the life skills needed to handle stressful situations that would otherwise lead to substance abuse. Also, they learn to change their behaviors and pre-existing viewpoints on drugs and substance abuse.
    Listed below are a few of the many researched therapies and a brief description. Each approach focuses on a specific substance:
    • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) – Most useful for treatment with alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, and nicotine. CBT was originally designed to help handle alcohol addiction and was later adjusted to help with cocaine addiction as well. The idea behind CBT is to prevent relapse by identifying negative patterns the individual has learned in the process of becoming addicted and apply a spectrum of new skills to replace the detrimental ones. Then the individual can learn self-control and effective coping skills.
    • Contingency Management Interventions/Motivational Incentives (CM) – Most useful with alcohol, stimulants, marijuana, opioids, and nicotine. This approach involves giving the patients rewards to bolster positive behaviors. The rewards are usually vouchers to be exchanged for food, goods, movie passes, or money. Of course, the reward money increases over time with continued clean drug tests. This system could lead to other types of addictive behavior, but research has shown this to not be true.
    • 12-Step Facilitation Therapy – Most effective with alcohol, stimulants, and opiates. This program is aimed at promoting and increasing the chances of a substance abuser to join a 12-step group. Research shows this approach to be effective for treating alcoholism. However, its effectiveness in the treatment of other drugs is still in the beginning stages but shows potential.
    Pharmacotherapies are a method of treating drug and substance abuse with the use of prescribed medications that imitate the drug in a person’s system. This is a controversial subject in the approaches to substance abuse treatment as many believe that using drugs to handle drug addiction, is indeed just a substitution. However, research shows that using drugs like Methadone does help get the substance abuser in support groups and functioning in society. However, it does not fully handle them getting clean, the addiction, or promote abstinence from drugs as the person is still addicted to drugs, just in a different form.
    Behavioral Therapies Primarily for Adolescents:
    Adolescents addicted to illicit or prescription drugs require different treatment than adults. Treatment plans that are designed for adults often need to be altered to fulfill the adolescents’ treatment needs. An adolescent is usually still living with their families until they are eighteen. The way the family operates and the actions of each family member also affects the way adolescents learn to handle life and interact with others. This is why a major component needed for handling addiction in youth is family involvement.

    Here are a few examples of different types of effective treatments for the handling of juvenile addiction:
    • Multisystemic Therapy (MST) – Works with aspects corresponding to drug abuse in children and adolescents who are displaying antisocial behaviors. Specifically, the aspects addressed include:

    o The adolescent (their ideas on using drugs)
    o Family (parental drug use, family conflicts)
    o School and friends (peers promoting drug use, poor schoolwork)
    o Communities and neighborhoods (criminal or drug subculture)
    Most families complete the MST course, which results in reduced drug use during treatment and drug abstinence for up to 6 months after treatment.
    • Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDST) – This type of therapy addresses different components of an adolescent’s life in an effort to bring about a complete recovery in all areas of their life. The counselor has meetings with the juvenile and family both together and independently in an attempt to better communication and agreements within the family.
    • Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) – This program focusing on handling family interactions that may exacerbate the drug abuse situation and cause further drug use in the adolescent. BSFT counselors are to identify these detrimental family problems and find a workable resolution for these so the youth does not have constant triggers for continued drug use.

    *Here is the link summarizing the approaches for managing drug and substance abuse:


    1. Effects of drug and substance abuse.
    Heroin is an opiate and it affects the brains opioids receptors when it’s taken. Overuse makes the body to develop tolerance to heroin. Meaning, it rewires the brain to feel normal when heroin is present.Longterm use changes the structure and physiology of a person’s brain thus changing its functionality. It also affects the white matter of a person’s brain, causing arrange of cognitive, memory and decision making problem. Physical dependency of heroin can lead to withdrawal signs if one stops using it.This can lead flulike symptoms to severe pain, insomnia and gastrointestinal issue.
    2. Management it the drug abuse.
    Addiction is a cunning disease and those suffering from substance use disorder don’t realize they are suffering. Program varies based on individual needs and severity of their addiction. Some may use treatment on an outpatient basis while others may need more intensive care. For an intervention to take place, there are various components attached to an intervention based on:
    1. TEAM-The intervention should be planned and carried out by ateam.
    2. PLANNING-Successful interventions result from athorough plan.
    3. CARE FOCUSED INTERVENTION-Intervention centred in LOVE and not BLAME.
    4.EVIDENCE-Everthing mentioned should be specific and backed by evidence.
    5.CLEAR GOAL-The goal to help the person enter treatment.
    6.TREATMENT OPTION-So that one can decide which one suits better.
    Note: It is important to plan and spend sometime preparing with the loved one before an intervention begins.


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